African-Americans only received 2.5 percent of science and engineering doctorates in 2006, according to the National Science Foundation data cited in Silicon Ceiling 10, up from 2.3 percent in 1997. Temporary visa holders from foreign nations received 38.6 percent of all science and engineering doctorates in 2006, an increase from 27.6 percent in 1997.
The increase came at the expense of white and Asian doctoral recipients who were American citizens or permanent residents. In 1997, 9.3 percent of doctoral recipients were Asian-American citizens or permanent residents and 50.8 percent were white. By 2006, those figures had declined to 5.9 percent and 42.4 percent.
By 2006, only 50.4 percent of males receiving science and engineering doctorates were American citizens of any ethnic backgrounds. Temporary visa holders began exceeding white males in 2005 with a percentage of 43.4 to 39.9 which widened to 44.1 to 39.2 by 2006.